1559 The Scottish Presbyterians (called
because of their solemn agreements for religious and political
purposes) signed their Second Covenant at Perth.
1567 Guido de Bres (b. 1522), Walloon
reformer and chief author of the Belgic
[Reformed] Confession, was martyred.
Catacombs of Rome were discovered.
1638 The Puritan Thomas
Hooker (1586–1647) arrived in
what is now Connecticut after leaving Massachusetts because
of a rivalry with Roger Williams. The minister was also one
of the main forces behind organizing America's first federal
government, the United Colonies of New England.
Neander, German hymnist, died (b. 1650).
Cruden, Scottish author and editor of Cruden's
Concordance, was born in Aberdeen, Scotland (d. 1
Johann Sebastian Bach (1685–1750)
was installed as cantor at Saint Thomas Church, Leipzig.
Ernst Gottlieb Woltersdorf, German poet, educator,
preacher and author, was born in Friedrichsfelde, near
Berlin (d. 1761).
1803 Presbyterians appointed Gideon
Blackburn (1772–1838) as their
first missionary to the American Indians, the Cherokee
Franz Joseph Haydn, Austrian composer, died (b. 31 March
Basilica of the National Shrine of the Assumption of the
Blessed Virgin Mary in Baltimore, Maryland, was
dedicated by John Carroll. This was the first Roman Catholic
cathedral built in the U.S.
1843 The Wesleyan
Methodist Connection of America was formed at Utica, New
York. It was antislavery and anti-episcopal.
1857 Ambrogio Damiano Achille Ratti was
born near Milan, Italy (d. 10 February 1939). In 1922 he
became Pope Pius XI.
Though he condemned the dictatorships in Italy (in 1931) and
Germany (in 1937), how much he worked to stop the Holocaust
has been hotly debated by scholars.
Bonar, regarded as the most eminent hymn writer of
Scotland and also a preacher of great fame and power, died
in Edinburgh (b. 19 December 1808, Edinburgh).
1898 Reformed minister
Norman Vincent Peale, who combined psychology with
Scripture in his ministry, was born in Bowersville, Ohio (d.
24 December 1993).
Albert Friedrich Hoppe, editor of the Saint Louis edition of
Luther's Works, died in Saint Louis (b. 24 July 1828,
Rostock, Mecklenburg, Germany).
1919 The American Lutheran Board for
Relief in Europe was appointed by President Friedrich
Pfotenhauer of the LCMS. It was discontinued in 1926 with
work to be carried on by the Lutheran Immigrant Society.
2002 August Theodore Mennicke, first
vice-president of the Missouri Synod from 1986 to 1995, died
in Coon Rapids, Minnesota (b. 1931). From 1970 to 1986 Mennicke was
president of the Minnesota North District, and prior to that
he was executive counselor for that district from 1963 to